Scientific Methods

Wednesday, April 12, 2006


The theory behind the description of how the Universe works still remains the controversial issue. This is because most of the scientists have proposed scientific theories which explain how the Universe works. The scientists have proposed the functioning of the Universe by explaining different forces. Different scientists from different institutions were coming up with their findings about the functioning of the Universe. Among the scientists were the world known scientists who have formulated formulae explaining the interactions of forces in different planet of the Universe. These include Albert Estein, Isaac Newton, and Niels Bohr. In the process of trying to explain how the Universe functions, four forces were introduced. These forces include the force of gravity, electromagnetism, nuclear and weak forces. In order to find the solution on how the Universe works, scientists try to unify all of the above mentioned forces together.

According to the father of gravity, as he was called, Albert Estein believes that the Universe behave in a predictive way. He further continued by saying that everything in the Universe is made up of the strings, explains Professor Steven Weinberg from the University of Texas, Austin. It is said that these strings vibrate in order to make all the constituents of nature. That is where the string theory began. At the age of 26, another prominent scientist by the name of Isaac Newton came up with his three laws, in which he says that there is a pulling force and pushing force. According to Newton, the force of gravity pulls all the particles towards the centre of the Earth. Newton also gave us an example of an apple which was falling off from the tree, which was falling because of the two forces acting on the apple, the push and the pulling forces.

Isaac Newton was also the one who said that nothing can go faster than the speed of the light, because the speed of the light is about 3*108m/s, explains Brian Green from Columbia University. Green further continued by saying that if light travels in such a high speed, gravitational disturbance will form the waves. How fast gravity travels led to the formulation of the general relativity. This led to Maxwell to come up with the theory of Electromagnetic force, which is the combination of electricity and magnet. Maxwell further continued by saying when the light is moving, it creates dots and dash. Therefore four simple equations, which is gravity; electromagnetism and string were combined to form one equation. In 1920s the Swedish scientist by the name of Niels Bohr disagreed with both Newton and Estein in that the Universe behave in a predictable way, says Amanda Peet from the University of Toronto. Bohr says that elements consist of the smallest particles called atoms. Therefore, Bohr came up the theory of quantum mechanics which predicts the chance or probability about the description of how the Universe works.

In 1930s, it was also discovered that gravity and electromagnetism are not the only forces which describes how the world works, says Nima Arkani from Harvard University. The other forces include the nuclear force which consists of protons and neutrons and the weak force. In 1933, Michael Green from the University of Cambridge explains the theory of quantum mechanics theory; the Universe is formed as a result of the big bang some 14billion years ago. As a result the Universe gets small. Michael Duff from the University of Michigan says the two laws of physics combine to form to explain the behaviour of the earth referring to the general relativity plus quantum mechanics. In 1968, Brian Veneziano made an accidental discovery of how the Universe works, but later on agreed that his discovery was not true. Veneziano says the force of nature can be explained by the small particles or photons, but at the same time the string theory was not getting off the ground. In 1973 after five years, massless particles anomalies were found not be true. In 1984 to 1985 the string theory was loosing the steam again.

The issue of how the Universe works still remains controversial. This is because different scientists try to unify different questions in describing how the universe functions without reaching the final conclusion. Scientists were also disagreeing with each other about the functioning of the Universe.

Peter Muvhali
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