# Scientific Methods

## Tuesday, April 11, 2006

### WRITTING NUMBERS

Rule 1. The numbers one through ten should be spelled out; use figures for numbers greater than ten.

Examples

I want five copies.
I want 15 copies.

Rule 2. With a group of related numbers where one number is above 10 in a sentence, write the numbers all in figures. Use words if all related numbers are 10 or below.

Correct I asked for 5 pencils, not 50.
Correct My ten cats fought with their one cat. Their cat won.
Incorrect I asked for five pencils, not 50.

Rule 3. If the numbers are unrelated, then you may use both figures and words. One through ten should again be spelled out.

Examples

I asked for 30 pencils for my five employees.

My nine cavities are exceeded in number by my 14 teeth.
My ten toes exceed in number my one nose.

Rule 4. Always spell out simple fractions and use hyphens with them.

Examples

One-half of the pies have been eaten.
A two-thirds majority is required for that bill to pass in Congress.

Rule 5. A mixed fraction can be expressed in figures unless it is the first word of a sentence.

Examples

We expect a 5 1/2 percent wage increase.
Five and one-half percent was the maximum allowable interest.

Rule 6. The simplest way to express large numbers is best but be careful to be consistent within a sentence.

Example

4 million dollars OR \$4 million OR four million dollars (not \$4,000,000)

Correct You can earn anywhere from \$500 to \$5,000,000.
Incorrect You can earn anywhere from \$500 to \$5 million.
Correct You can earn from five hundred to five million dollars.
Incorrect You can earn from \$500 to five million dollars.

Rule 7. Write decimals in figures. Put a zero in front of a decimal unless the decimal itself begins with a zero.

Examples

The plant grew 0.79 of a foot in one year.
The plant grew only .07 of a foot this year because of the drought.

Rule 8. When writing out large numbers of five or more digits before the decimal point, use a comma where the comma would appear in the figure format. Use the word and only where the decimal point appears in the figure format.

Examples

\$15,768.13 (Fifteen thousand, seven hundred sixty-eight dollars and thirteen cents)

\$1054.21 (One thousand fifty-four dollars and twenty-one cents)
Note: The comma is now commonly omitted in four-digit whole numbers.

Rule 9. The following examples apply when using dates:

Examples

The meeting is scheduled for June 30.
The meeting is scheduled for the 30th of June.
We have had tricks played on us on April 1.
The 1st of April puts some people on edge.

Rule 10. Hyphenate all compound numbers from twenty-one through ninety-nine.
Example

Forty-three people were injured in the train wreck. Twenty-three of them were hospitalized.

Rule 11. Write out a number if it begins a sentence.

Examples

Twenty-nine people won an award for helping their communities.
That 29 people won an award for helping their communities was fantastic!

Extracted from

The Blue Book of Grammar and Punctuation
ISBN: 0-9667222-7-5
MILL VALLEY, CA USA

Cheers
Rich

Dr Richard Knight
Co-ordinator: National Information Society Learnerships - Ecological Informatics
Department of Biodiversity and Conservation Biology
University of the Western Cape
Private Bag X17
Bellville 7535

Phone 27 + 21 + 959 3940
Fax 27 + 21 + 959 1237

### EARLY HOMINIDS: PREY OR PREDATORS?

Abstract

Early hominids in the past were susceptible to attack, rather than strong and fearless hominids. This is according to new fossil evidence that larger animals preyed on early hominids in the past (1). Approximately 6 percent to 10 percent of early humans were preyed upon; this is due to teeth marks found on bones made by sabre-toothed cat fangs (1).

However, the teeth of Australopithecus africanus fossils were subjected to isotopic analysis where different types isotopes of a particular atom exist in the environment in a specific ratio to each other (2, Sponheimer and Lee-Thorp, 1999). Sponheimer and Lee-Thorp, (1999) concluded in their report that isotopic analysis coded, that eating meat in the past was also part of A. africanus diet, and not only fit for eating grasses and sedges (2). However, Sussman and Hart suggest the tooth structure of A. afarensis wasn't fit for meat, but rather fit for eating fruits and nuts (1).

Effects of predation have also now been theorized as one of the major factors that contributed to the evolution of hominids (Isbell, 2005). Isbell (2005) suggest that "modern primates, behaviours such as active defence, concealment, vigilance, flight, and alarm calls have been recognized to the selective pressures of predation". Therefore it is clear that primates, like other animals, have evolved ways to minimize their risk of predation (Isbell, 2005). This is also true according to Professor Sussman, in which he states that "one of the main defences used by early hominids were to live in groups" (1). These factors such as predator avoidance also forced hominids to evolve adaptive strategies for survival. Adaptive strategies of early hominids involved; assemblage of individuals, an increase in survival strategies and being informative (1). It is now thought that predation has had an important ecological and evolutionary effects on primates as prey (Isbell, 2005).

Unfortunately the early hunting hypothesis states that early human ancestors were hunters and scavengers and possessed a killer instinct.
The debate whether early hominids were prey or predators is very difficult, because there are no direct evidence about the evolutionary effects of predation on early hominids (Isbell, 2005) even though, new fossil evidence suggests that predation was one of the factors that contributed to hominid evolution. Therefore, early hominids in the past were frail and feeble, but tend to use skills like sociability and defences to continue their existence (1).

Reference:

1. http://news-info.wustl.edu/news/page/normal/6584.html

2. http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/255725.stm

M. Sponheimer and J.A. Lee-Thorp (1999). Isotopic evidence for the diet of an early hominid, Australopithecus africanus. Science 283: 368.

Isbell, L.A. (2005) Predation on primates: Ecological patterns and evolutionary consequences. Evolutionary Anthropology.Vol 3, Issue 2, 61-71

Riaan Cedras Brinley
Department of Biodiversity and Conservation Biolgy
University of the Western Cape
Private BagX17
Email: 2320648@uwc.ac.za
Ph: 0723652003
www.dj_CD.iblog.co.za

### TRIP TO STERKFONTEIN

Report by Masiya Kedibone

Trip to Sterkfontein, cradle of humankind

Sterkfontein caves

It was on the 23rd of March 2006 when we visited Sterkfontein cave. The area is located within the Isaac Edwin Stegmann Reserve about 10km from Krugersdorp. It is found in Western Gauteng and North West province of South Africa. These caves were donated to the University of Witwatersrand by the Stegmann family.
www.sa-venue.com/

Tour guide

Rufus Mokwena was our tour guide. He gave us the rules before going to the cave for example asthmatic people were not allowed to go to the cave. He advised us to be close to each other in the cave. Rufus decided to combine our group with a group of four people who were not from CSIR. We were together with them during our touring.

On the way to the cave.

We observed the gabbros which were written different types of species. The species include Coelacanth fossil fish, Lystro sourus which was the mammal-like reptile, Thrinaxodon was also a mammal-like reptile, Dinosaurs birds called Euparkeria, Pangaea, Massospondylus which was South African dinosaur and it was an ancestor of Ostrich. The year which the species were found were also indicated.

We also observed the gabbros of the foot of the Australopithecus from Sterkfontein cave which was 3.3 million years old. It was 4 feet tall. We observed Lommon an ancestor of Homo, Mrs Ples which was Australopithecus africanus from Sterkfontein was 2.6 million years old. We also observed gabbros of Homo sapiens from Africa rock art and Eland Taurotragus from South African rock art etc.

Underground cave

Rufus told us that the main entrance of the caves are the man made whereas the caves
are natural. There were steps down at the entrance and inside the caves which were also man made. The electricity was there to provide light for us. Rufus had a torch which he used to light on the way and top of the cave. There were many pathways inside the cave going to the different directions. We were fortunate because we were with Rufus who knew the cave very well. We watched the video presentation in the cave. The presentation was done by Professor Ron Clark. The presentation was about the little foot. We did not see the fossilised remains because they were put in a dark place. We were told that the skeleton was there and it had 3.5 million year old.

At the centre of the cave, we observed the dolomites rocks shaped like an elephant and also looked like an African map. The shapes were unique and aesthetic. The dolomites were covered by the stele tight at the lowest part; it was 16m below the surface. We saw the stalactite clear water and we were told that inside the water only shrines are found there and they are blind. It was also the habitat for bats. The underground cave is very beautiful. On our way out from the cave we also observed the stature of Dr Robert Broom carried the fossil skull of Mrs Ples.

Museum or hominid exhibition hall

We also went to the exhibition hall where we observed different types of hominids fossil, skulls, teeth, bones and stones that were found long time ago and on each fossil was written the year that it lived. The different pictures of earliest hominids, modern human, chimpanzees and gorillas etc were there and it was interesting.

Conclusion

I have learned to work as team. In the caves, we were closed to each other to ensure that we were all protected. I have also learned to trust a leader. We trusted Rufus that he would leads us with the right directions in the cave. We were not injured even though it was hard to walk in the cave. He made his voice audible to us as a group. He led us nicely until we went out from the cave.

Masiya Kedibone
CSIR Pretoria
0001
Cell No : 073 2519071
Tel No: 012 8412123
Fax : 012 842 3676
E-mail :kmasiya@csir.co.za
weblog: http://kedimasiya.blogspot.com/

### VIDEOS THAT SHOULD HAVE REVIEWED

Hi Everyone

I am going through the list of VIDEOS on your Scientific Methods DVD

I summarized what was required to be viewed and any assignments related to it

Human Ancestry

Ape to Man (format Google Video)

Assessment
Assignment - The tutorial questions that have been completed plus an online test for Pretoria Learners only - UWC have done it)

Birth of Civilization

BBC - Pyramids - How they were build (Format: AVI: Use klmcodec152 to view)

Optional Videos to watch
1. Ancient Warriors - The Macedonians (format Google Video) - Birth of Strategy, originally a military term and perfected by the Macedonian Army of King Phillip
2. Mysteries of Egypt (Format: AVI: Use klmcodec152 to view) - Entertaining view of later Egyptian civilization
3. Genesis (Format:DIVX AVI: Use klmcodec152 to view) - Birth of the Earth
4. Atlantis Uncovered (Discovery) (Format: AVI: Use klmcodec152 to view) - Review of early civilizations around the world
Assessment

Will be tested on this video and Power Point Chapters 2 and 3

Sustainability of Society

The Lost Civilization of Peru (format Google Video)
Jared Diamond - Collapse How Societies Choose to Fail or Succeed (format Google Video)

Assessment

Only through posting on the Course Weblog and your own Weblog

Modern Science

Nova - The Elegant Universe - Part I - Einstien's Universe  (Format:DIVX AVI: Use klmcodec152 to view)
Nova - The Elegant Universe - Part II - Strings the thing.avi (Format:DIVX AVI: Use klmcodec152 to view)
Nova - The Elegant Universe - Part III - Welcome to the 11th Dimension (available from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/elegant/program.html )

or

Film What the Bleep Do We Know? (DVD was shown at UWC and is available from your local Video hire shop or for purchase from www.take2.co.za http://www.take2.co.za at R135)

Assessment

Film Review posted on your Weblog 13th April 2006 (9am latest)

Modern Science (To Review Next Week)

When Computers Were Human (format Google Video)

Assessment

Your Own Weblog will provide evidence of this.

I hope this helps clears up what you should have reviewed already.  (All the material except Nova - The Elegant Universe - Part III is on the DVD)

Cheers

Rich

Dr Richard Knight
Co-ordinator: National Information Society Learnerships - Ecological Informatics
Department of Biodiversity and Conservation Biology
University of the Western Cape
Private Bag X17
Bellville 7535

Phone 27 + 21 + 959 3940
Fax 27 + 21 + 959 1237

### GREEN RELIGION - EXPLAIN MYSELF MORE!

Hi Everyone

Karen sent the following email and transcript from St George's Cathedral, Cape Town 26 March 2006.

"Hi Richard

Regarding which religion is greener? I am not trying to defend Christians, I considered if I should post this on the blog, but thought you might think it inappropriate. It is a recent sermon by Bishop Geoff Davies on the environment.

Enjoy

Karen"

Firstly the posting was more about materialism that saying any one religion is right or wrong. I posed the question that the Pagan Religions attempted to show respect to nature (even if by attempting to appease some weather God) but they also practiced certain sustainable lifestyles. Many Pagan societies had holy areas (forests and marshes especially and we know these to be ecologically sensitive). What I was stressing was green responsibility at the society of religions rather than individual practioneers and preachers. I am not a secret Paganist (nor an open one for that matter!) , but I find few contemporary religions that take the environmental issues seriously. OK, there are many Green Christians, Muslims and Jews, but are the actual religions themselves respectful of green issues. I have not see any USA churches condemning the country for not signing the Kyoto Protocol ( http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kyoto_Protocol ).  Interestingly enough many Christian practices such Christmas and Easter have Paganistic roots (Why else are they close to the Solstices and Equinoxes?).  In Europe , the Autumn Harvest Festival conducted at churches throughout the country closely mirrors Pagan beliefs.

Nevertheless as society of Christian, Muslim, Jewish and other religions each individual should attempt to define their attitudes - this "'Spirituality for a world at risk" to be especially encouraging.

ST GEORGE'S CATHEDRAL, CAPE TOWN
26th March 2006

I thank the Dean and the Cathedral for the opportunity of addressing the
topic of 'the environment at risk' in this important series on 'Spirituality
for a world at risk.' I was able to hear The Reverend Carel Anthonissen in
his important opening address and regret not being present when Margaret
Legum and Pat September spoke. I was away in Madagascar at the invitation of
the Bishop Toamasina to advise on the use of church land and assist, I
suspect, in finding funding for its development, which will be most
worthwhile if funding can be found to develop it as a centre for theological
training, conservation, sustainable agriculture and environmental education.

Madagascar, a land of incredible natural abundance, could now be described
unwittingly. With notable exceptions which one seeks out, the trees I saw
were Australian invasives, and the birds were Indian Mynahs and Crows. To
experience Madagascar is to experience the pain of creation.

You could say that Madagascar symbolises the intractable problems of the
rural world - more and more people seeking survival off the natural world,
leaving little opportunity for the survival of the rest of creation. It is
becoming clearer by the moment that we are dependant on the well-being of
the natural world. We cannot just care for the poor without caring for the
environment on which they are dependent. But this dependence applies equally
to our urban, industrial world. While we bewail what is happening in the
rural world, our urban pollution, our toxic waste, our insatiable energy
demands that are changing the climate and leaving a risk to future
generations for the next 240 000 years from nuclear waste, our rapacious
greed, is causing even greater risk to our world.

But we are not here to list the catalogue of woes that both rural and urban
societies face.

I am wanting to respond the challenge Canon Bruce Jenneker wrote in the
Sermon Series Notes: "Exploring resources for a spirituality that enables
and empowers us to live creatively, safely and responsibly in our world that
is so perilously at risk."

I. The Creator God

a conference in Kenya on "God and Creation." It was incredibly exciting and
encouraging - nearly three hundred pastors and clergy from East Africa
attended.

The overriding theme was clear: we cannot eradicate poverty if we destroy
the natural environment. The whole conference was music to my soul as
someone who has been pleading with the church to take creation seriously
since 1985 - and before. Now, here it was American evangelicals giving a
lead! It was held at Brackenhurst Environment Centre, a Baptist Conference
Centre with members of the Baptist Church who are the driving force. The
Centre is a haven in the surrounding chaos and disorder of rural Kenya.

An Anglican Bishop from Uganda, Dr Zak Niringiye, led the morning devotions.
I want to start where he began, with the first verse of the Bible.

"In the beginning, God. God, in the beginning. God in the beginning created
the heavens and the earth."

incredible paradise, so be it. The importance is recognising this Creator
God and we Christians must confess that we have long neglected this with our
Christ-centred theology -and I might add - lectionary. Not only does
contemporary Christianity stand in danger of neglecting the Father, in our
Trinitarian Faith, it has largely forgotten God the Creator.

So the first resource is the rediscovery of God who created the heavens and
the earth. Now you might say, "Bishop Geoff, you are being a bit simplistic
for this Cathedral congregation. We know the importance of worshipping God
the Creator."

But the world out there does not - and our dilemma is, first, that the more
'developed' and better educated we become, the more we think we can manage
without God. In our technological world where we control our light and
temperature and have little opportunity of experiencing 'wilderness areas'
it is hard to fathom, never mind worship, our Creator God.

When we have opportunities of experiencing wilderness, such as sitting on a
200m high cliff edge, overlooking the Msikaba Gorge with 40 vultures soaring
overhead, one can only be filled with awe and praise. When you have seen
that you understand why we oppose the proposed Wild Coast toll road
threatening this vulture colony.

This leads to the second aspect: it is necessary for Man to acknowledge the
Creator God to place a limit on the arrogance of Man, who thinks he can do
as he wishes. I use the term 'Man' advisedly, and maybe I should be more
specific, and say 'Men'. We have so much wealth and power - to use for
building up or destroying - that without constraints, we do as we wish to
the rest of creation, and we rely on the strength of our "war horses" (Psalm
33). The trouble is that our contemporary 'chariots of war' are so much more
destructive than anything envisaged in Biblical times. But if only we would
seek justice and righteousness - as exhorted by the Prophets, instead of
relying on our war horses, our world would be a lot safer and more peaceful.
Redirect just half of the trillions of dollars spent on armaments, and we
would be well on the way to alleviating poverty, restoring degraded
environment and finding peace.

For that to happen, we - I really want to say - political leaders must not
claim that Jesus is on their side, but must submit themselves to seeking
what is God's will, and in obedience doing what is right and just before
this Creator God.

Thirdly, contemporary society worships Mammon, not God. "Market forces must
be free to reign. We must not restrict the 'market'", and so we bow down in
obeisance. All becomes subservient to the market and capital.

II. Self Restraint

My second 'resource' has already been put forward by Carel Anthonissen: self
restraint.

This is crucial in our contemporary Capitalist society with its daily
advertising barrage exhorting us to indulge our every desire. We cannot
continue seeking to satisfy our insatiable desires as if our finite planet
provided limitless resources.

My reading of our spiritual values is that self restraint and control is at
the core of a disciplined Christian life in spite of what the erroneous and,
I believe, deeply heretical prosperity cults tell us.

If we Christians cannot call for self-restraint, who can and what hope is
there for a sustainable future for our children?

The heart of the Christian gospel is self-sacrificial love - Christ died on
the cross to show us that.

It is for this generation, in the face of the constant refrain for 'ever
expanding (economic) growth' to be prepared to make sacrifices for the good,
not only of future generations, but for all life. How we do that is, of
course, for each of us to examine before God.

But again to quote Bishop Zak in Kenya: the call to "make poverty history"
should be replaced with "make greed history" for it is the rampant greed,
encouraged by our economic system that is at the heart of so much poverty,
suffering and environmental destruction. It is for us Christians to stand
and say "enough is enough". Don't look for a 6% growth rate. Look for a
growth in economic justice.

III Inclusiveness

Our third and last response is inclusiveness.

I find it difficult to justify an exclusivist approach in our global village
facing environmental devastation, when we all - of all faiths - breath the
same air, drink the same water and depend on the soil.

By all means affirm - strongly - your faith in the salvation of Jesus
Christ. I would emphatically not want to deny that.

At the same time, I question that we humans can claim a full and complete
knowledge and revelation of God. We cannot begin to encompass the wonder,
majesty and incomprehensibility of God and we cannot claim that God has not
revealed Himself in a multitude of ways, and to diverse and many peoples.
That does not undermine my own conviction that the most complete revelation
we have is through Jesus Christ. Through no other religion do we come to God
as 'Abba', 'Daddy', a loving infinitely caring God.

I well recall the privilege of being in this Cathedral when Archbishop
Emeritus Robert Selby Taylor preached at the Golden Jubilee of his
consecration as a Bishop - a pretty good record! In that address he recalled
that when he became a Bishop, there was suspicion and distance between
different Christian denominations. I recall people commenting in those
earlier years that they had attended a Roman Catholic or Methodist service
and found that they said the Lord's Prayer or sang familiar hymns. The
unknown and unfamiliar are cause for apprehension.

But, he said, in his time as a Bishop, and through the Church Unity
Commission, there had been a great coming together and understanding between
Christian denominations. It was, Archbishop Robert said, his hope and prayer
that we would grow similarly in greater understanding and overcoming of
suspicion and fear between religions.

I believe this to be essential. We know the most horrifying prospect would
be an inter-religious war which would encompass the world. Our own
experience in our year-old Southern African Faith Communities' Environment
Institute is that there is deep appreciation and gratitude of the different
representatives of the religions of South Africa to work together on
environmental issues. It is deeply enriching for all concerned.

But I don't want this inclusiveness to be seen only in terms of our faith.
Inclusiveness must include all that God has created, all life, that God
declared was 'very good'.

"God saw all that He had made, and behold it was very good" (Genesis 1:31)

We have been grossly guilty of misappropriating the mandate God gave us to
'rule' over creation. It can never be seen as an excuse ruthlessly to
exploit creation for our own selfish ends. We have treated the rest of
creation as objects, there only for the benefit of humankind.

As Thomas Berry points out, we must treat all of creation as subjects, not
objects, all to be treated with respect and with value in themselves before
God.

As it is, we humans stand in danger of bringing about the 6th Great
Extinction, and I can consider no greater sin than to be guilty of causing
the extinction of a plant or creature that God has brought into being.

What profound arrogance to think that the rest of creation is of no
consequence and to think that only we are of importance. As Professor
Wangari Maathai, 2005 Nobel Peace Laureate so simply points out, if God had
made us on the second or third day, we would not have survived. We are
dependent on the rest of creation. We must rapidly learn to live in harmony
with it, for the survival of all. All life is precious to God.

I have talked of only three things: God, self restraint and inclusiveness.

I believe it is now urgent that we take seriously our responsibility to God
the Creator. This next decade could be critical for the future health of the
planet. For one, the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions is desperately
urgent.

Finally, the sooner we acknowledge and seek to be obedient to God the
Creator, the better for us and the world and the more pleasing it will be to
God.

God is Green! Read the Bible with green spectacles and see that being
earth-keepers (Genesis 2:15) is core gospel business. It is not just another
justice issue. It must become integral to our church and in our own lives.

We, who worship and serve the God who created the heavens and the earth,
must be foremost in 'keeping the earth' - for God and for our children.
What a challenge for Mission. What a sense of purpose - not justifying a
god of the gaps but working with and for the creator God at the centre of
life - all life.

Amen

Bishop Geoff Davies
SA Faith Communities' Environment Institute
Kalk Bay, 7975
South Africa

Telefax: **27 21 788 6591
Cell: 083 754 5275
Email: geoffd@intermail.co.za

Dr Richard Knight
Co-ordinator: National Information Society Learnerships - Ecological Informatics
Department of Biodiversity and Conservation Biology
University of the Western Cape
Private Bag X17
Bellville 7535

Phone 27 + 21 + 959 3940
Fax 27 + 21 + 959 1237

### THE SEVEN DAUGHTERS OF EUROPE AND THEIR ORIGINS

Ever since the American Geneticist, Rebecca Cann and colleagues had published their paper in 1987 on the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and evolution to resolve the old dispute surrounding the birthplace of Homo sapiens, which indeed was Africa, they also came up with new evidence which suggested that the modern hominids had originated as a single genetic line (Oppenheimer 2003). This genetic line dates back approximately 200 000 years before present and goes back to where H. sapiens and H. neanderthalensis shared a common ancestor (Oppenheimer 2003). With the assistance of the mtDNA, geneticist could now traced the time, major events in human history and most important, the Mitochondrial Eve or the single common ancestor (Oppenheimer 2003, Hagelberg 2003). The label Eve did not refer to a single, individual women as misunderstood by the media, but rather as a female genetic line or a clan. In fact the whole human population are derived from a clan between 2000 and 10 000 humans that lived in Africa (Oppenheimer 2003).

The history around the migration of Europeans from Africa or later from Asia was a bit of an issue and it challenged the scientific community at that time. According to Oppenheimer (2003), the origin of Europeans is indeed from the East, which are explained by the human genetic markers. Oppenheimer (2003) goes further and states that the Europeans did not come directly from Africa, but from somewhere near the Indian subcontinent, which rejected assumptions of an early African exodus.
The ancestors of the Europeans or the Nasreen clan came from Africa at least 80 000 years before present but they only inhabited Europe approximately 30 000 years later (Oppenheimer 2003). One would ask, why did they colonize Europe so late? Its late in comparison with their sister clan Manju, which arrived in Australia over 60000 years ago, which is on the other side of the world. The main reason for that, were climatic factors as most of Europe was inaccessible due to the ice and the big desert between Syria and the Indian Ocean (Oppenheimer 2003).

During his study (Sykes 2001), Prof B. Sykes has identified seven major genetic clusters among Europeans and within these clusters he has found that 95% of all modern Europeans can be placed within one of these groups. By knowing the rate of mutation, Sykes also calculated the time of origin of these clan as well as their geographical hotspots. He gave each of the clusters a name according Antonio Torroni classification system, namely: U-Ursula, X-Xenia, H-Helena, V-Velda, T-Tara, K-Katerine and J-Jasmine.
Each of these women lived in different environments, which means they had different struggles and had to adapt to their surrounding to complement their lifestyle.

Reference:
·Oppenheimer S (2003) Out of Africa's Eden. Jonathan Ball Publishers (PTY) Ltd, Jeppestown. pp 45, 46, 85, 86, 129-131.
·Sykes B (2001) The Seven Daughters of Eve. Transworld Publishers, London. pp 243-250.
·Hagelberg E (2003) Recombination or mutation rate heterogeneity? Implication for Mitochondrial Eve. Trends in Genetics, Vol.19. pp 84-90

Bentley Engelbrecht
Department of Biodiversity and Conservation Biology
UWC
Email: 2045669@uwc.ac.za
Web: www.judean.iblog.co.za
Tel: 0832082286

### Report

Report
By Lizzy

Our tour to Sterkfontain

On Thursday 23rd I and my team went to the Sterkfontain cave and we went with Althea. Sterkfontain cave is a very nice place and it is located at Krugersdorp. It is donated to the University of Witwatersrand by the Stegmann family. At sterkfontain cave we were with the tourist guider by the name of Rufus Mokwena and also other group of 4 (four) people. Rufus firstly gave us the rules for the Sterkfontain cave and also told us to stay close to each other. Rufus explain each and every species that we came across.

We observed the gabbros and on each it written different types of species such as Coelacanth fossil fish, Lystro sourus which was the mammal-like reptile and Thrinaxodon was also a mammal-like reptile, Dinosaurs birds called Euparkeria, Pangaea, Massospondylus which was South African dinosaur and it was an ancestor of Ostrich and on each of the species it written a year when it found.

We also observed the gabbros of the foot of the Australopithecus from Sterkfontain cave which was 3.3 million years old. It was 4 feet tall. We observed Lommon an ancestor of Homo, Mrs Ples which was Australopithecus africanus from Sterkfontain was 2.6 million years old. We also observed gabbros of Homo sapiens from Africa rock art and Eland Taurotragus from South African rock art etc.

Underground cave

Rufus told us that the main entrance of the cave is the man made and the other part is natural. There was a steps down at the entrance which was also man made and the electricity was there to provide light for us and Rufus was also having torch. There are many pathways inside the cave going to the different directions. Thanks God because we were with the tourist guider and he knew the place very well. We trusted him believing that he will shows us the way out from the cave after every thing.

In side the cave we watched the video presentation about the story of little foot which did not saw the fossilised remains because of the darkness of place where they put the little foot. Rufus confirmed that the skeleton was there and it was 3.5 million year old. The presentation was done by Professor Ron C lark.

At the central cave we observed the dolomites rocks in a shape of an elephant and also looked like an African map. The shapes were lovely and beautiful. The dolomites were covered by the stele tight, at the lowest part; it was 16m below the surface we observed the stalactite clear water and we were told that inside the water only shrines are found there and they are blind. It was also the habit for bats. The underground cave is very beautiful but it is also a scaring place. On our way out from the cave we also observed the stature of Dr Robert Broom carried the fossil skull of Mrs Ples.

Museum or hominid exhibition hall

We also went to the museum and we observed different types of hominids fossil, skulls, teeth, bones and stones that were found long time ago and on each fossil was written the year that it lived. The different pictures of earliest hominids, modern human, chimpanzees and gorillas etc were there and it was interesting.

I learned that I have to trust and listen to others and this is very important .We listen to Rufus and trust him during our tour. We believed that he will take us to underground and bring us back safely and did it; we were safe no one get injured. I learned to work as a team. Where ever we went, we were in group as we were told to be together all the time.

Lizzy Maluleke
CSIR PTA
0001
Cell no   072 351 8488
Tell        012 841 2133
Fax        012 842 3676
E-mail    maluleke@csir.co.za

### REPORT ABOUT STERKFONTEIN CAVES TOUR

REPORT ABOUT STERKFONTEIN CAVE TOUR (CRADLE OF HUMANKIND) on the 23 March 2006

PREPARED BY: RAMAPULANA NKOANA

INTRODUCTION
The directions to the Cradle of Humankind, the site lies in the Gauteng province and it covers 47000 hectares of land mostly privately owned. Sterkfontein Caves is located within the Isaac Edwin Stegmann Reserve about 10km from Krugersdorp. The cave was donated to the University of Witwatersrand by the Stegmann family. It contains a lot of dolomitic limestone caves containing the fossilised remains of ancient forms of animals, plants and hominids. The dolomite, in which the caves formed, started out as coral reefs growing in a shallow sea about 2.3 billion years ago (pamphlet handled by Althey at CSIR before the tour, www.sa-venues.com ).
The map below shows the direction to Sterkfontein Caves and it is located at Krugersdorp.

Sterkfontein Caves are famous for the Mrs Ples in 1947 and little foot in 1997 world renowned hominid finds and also hundred of hominid fossils as well as stone tools have been found. It is donated to the University of Witwatersrand by the Stegmann family.

The tourist guider (Rufus Mokwena) told us about the rules and to stay close to each other for safely reason on the arrival. On the way to the caves he explained every species that were on the gabbros. The species that we observed were Lystro sourus, Thrinaxodon which were the mammal-like reptile; other species were Euparkeria (Dinosaurs bird) and Massospondylus. The species that we observed which considered to be the most famous at Sterkfontein Caves were Lommon an ancestor of homo, Homo sapiens, Mrs Ples (scientific name:Astralopithecus africanus).
Cave
Inside the cave we watched a video which shows Dr.Robert Broom discoveries; on the 17th August 1936 he had found the first adult skull of the 2, 6 to 3 million years old ape-man, Astralopithecus africanus. On the exit site there is a Robert Broom museum which have many hominid and fossils discovered.

Ramapulana Nkoana
CSIR Pretoria
0001
Cell:0733476551
Tell:012 841 2133
pnkoana@csir.co.za
http://pnkoana.blogspot.com
Fax:012 842 3676