Scientific Methods

Friday, May 26, 2006

Crop circle

Crop circle are flattened and geometrically. There are different shapes of crop circles; these include squares, circular, rectangular, rings and cubes. Crop circles are very unique and complex pattern. Some were observed from the video. Crop circles happened on wheat, corn, rice, barley, oats and grass. Crop circles occurred naturally however, some crop circles are artificial. Crop circle occurred in different places in the world. Many of the crop circle occurred in 11pm and 4am.

Some scientists said that the crop formation show that the world is going to change. In contrary, some scientists said that crop circle happened when Satan has visited the farmer’s yard and trampled down within crop circle.

Scientists used different way to understand the crop circles. Some scientists tested the soil and silicon crystals inside the circle as well as the soil outside the circle. The findings indicated that the soil inside circle was radioactive. The soil outside the circle was not radio active. The circles were flattened. Some scientists said that inside the circle there is more magnetic ion compound than outside.

Crop circle have occurred in countries such as Japan, United States of America, Israel, England, India and Britain. In place such as Germany and France crop circle occurred in April and August. In Japan crop circles had appear on rice field. The shape of the crop circles were pictogram.

The laboratory finding which has been found in USA was based on oats stem. The stem which was found inside the circle and outside was different. The crop inside the received more heat.

The crop circle which has been found in New York had the triangular formation. The scientists used wheat. The findings indicated that the seeds inside the formation were tiny and they were not growing very fast. The crops near the circle formation were also were similar like crops inside.

Crop circles are really unique. It is difficult to understand the formation. Crop circle do occur naturally. However, some crop circles are made by human. Crop circle also have sizes which indicate that they used certain measurement.


Turrusse M. Crop circle. [Internet] Elohim Crop circle; 2006 May 26, [Cited 2006 May 26 3:04 UTC]
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Masiya Kedibone
CSIR Pretoria
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What are these crop circles some says that they are patterns that no one can explain and others says that they are similar crops that some of the crops are flattened to form different types of shapes.

Some people think that crop circles are natural and others thinks that are manmade. Some people think that it is a “foot print of intelligence” [1]. Those who have seen crop circle been made said that it takes just few minutes to make a crop circle. For an example Doug Bower and Dave Chorley said that they know how to make these circles and they have been making crop circles in England since 1978 [2]. They said they were using planks, ropes, wires and hats to make the circles.

So who or what really made these crop circles is it the witches/wizards or lightning or aliens or just super natural powers or man. I think nobody really knows the answer to this question because each and everyone want to prove that his/her point to be right. Those who are saying that they are witches or wizards’ making this circles they said that the witches/wizards made the circles while they are dancing and they dance in rings or circles. As for the different circles they says that witches/wizard do not serve the same master so it depends on which master they are serving and they call crop circles as “fairy circles”. Some people say that is a way that aliens communicate with people so what people has to do is just to figure out what the circle means. As for the lightning they say that the lightning has burst from the clouds in a circular way then when it reaches the ground it makes crop circles [3].

Why are this crop circle happening is it just to decorate the field or is there any other reason. Those who are making these circles they are just making them for fun just like Doug and Dave were making these circles just to make people think that aliens’ spacecraft had landed there just because they have read about crop circles from a book [4]. But those who believe that crop circles are made by aliens said that on the night this crop circle appeared they saw unusual light and they also heard some weird sounds and some says that they smelt a “smoky foul smell” in the early mornings [5]. As for those who believe that crop circles are natural thinks that everything can be explained by the “Plasma vortex theory” where air from the top of a hill whirls up and produce electrically charged particles which flattens the crops [6].

In the soil of some crop circles especially were the crops were bent there were small particles of magnetic iron which were found inside the circles were more than those found outside the circle? The soil inside the circle differs from the soil outside in such a way that the soil which is found inside the circle is more fertile than the one which is outside. The nodes on the stalks of plants which are inside the circle are different from those outside so if it was man-made how do they change the nodes of plants? Why the do not make mistake because all the crop circles that are available are all perfect. Where do they get time to make this circle? What is keeping the shape of the circles? Why are these crop circles only found in certain plants such as wheat, corns or oat but not in spinach field or pumpkin field? Why do they occur only during the night between 11 pm to 4 in the morning [7]?

The way the crop circles are made the are so beautiful so some of them I can believe that they are made by man but some I do not believe; they way the are so complicated I do not think they can make them. From this website [8] explains how artificial crop circles were made so my question is how did the change the nodes on the plants or is just another technique used to become rich and famous? So I personally I think some of the crop circles occur naturally and some are man-made.


1. Quest for the truth. [Video] available from:
2. Wikipedia contributors. Crop circles [Internet]. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopaedia; 2006 May 18, 03:27 UTC [Cited 2006 May 19]. Available from:
3. Plot, R. The natural History of Stafford-Shire. [Internet]Updated 2006 May8, 2:31 am [Cited 2006 May 23]. Available from: plotshistorystaffordshireabbrev.pdf
4. Anon. Crop circles [Internet]. Updated 2006 May 26, [Cited 2006 May 26]. Available from:
5. Anon. Are crop circles made by Aliens? [Internet]. Updated 2006 May 26, [Cited 2006 May 26]. Available from:
6. Anon. Are crop circles a Natural phenomenon? [Internet]. Updated 2006 May 26, [Cited 2006 May 26]. Available from:
7. Anon. Crop circle theories [Internet]. Updated Anon [Cited 2006 May 19]. Available from:
8. Krystek, L.Crop circles from outer space? [Internet]. Updated 2000, [Cited 2006 May 26]. Available from:

Lethabo Mosomane
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One can ask a question like, what is a crop circles?. It is easy to understand what crop circles are

One can ask a question like, what is a crop circles?. It is easy to understand what crop circles are.  According to the knowledge I have, after reading different materials and viewing videos.  Crop circles are defined as a place of similar crops that have systematically geometric patterns.  It is not easy to explain the pattern of crop circles that are found in fields.  Some scientists said that, crop circles are just circles that are found in crops.  Some of them said that, a circle is a symbol of humanity on earth.  They also said that, it is a symbol of God and Heaven in different things.  Crop circles are mostly found in wheat, corn, seeds, maize,  oats and in barley. Sometimes Crop circles may occur in snow and even in long grass. Some say the crop circles are man made while others are artificial.  Some of the Scientists said that, most of the crop circles are created at night and early in the morning between 11pm to 4 am.



There are different shapes of crop circles; some are like a ring, flattened, rectangular, geometric, triangle, and circular shapes.. In place where there is crop circles plants are bent above the soil and it laid down like a geometrically patterns.  If we look on this grass, it is invisible to see the physical sign indicating the damage between those plants. But there is some heat in those plants because of light burn that occurs in the base of stems.  Depletion of local watershed occurs but you can not see it physically. This will cause the crops (maize) to change the colours.  Although crop circles does not happened to trees. 



According to the laboratory results found in the United Kingdom.  The research is based on barley of crop circles.  They focus on barley (Samples of seeds heads). This was done on 07 November 1992.  The shape of these crop circles is circular in shape and it was fourth circles.  The people who study this crop circles said that, there is different between the seeds from the circles and the seeds that are outside the circles and they grow differently.  The different is that, seeds that are found outside the circles are well-developed while in the inside of the circles have no seeds.


Another laboratory report which is also found in United Kingdom. Were focused on seeds.  The information indicates that, there are 21m circles that are formed during the night of April 24-25 1992 and they are collected on 01 May 1992.  The shape of these crop circles is circular in shape.  They provide information that, the cells at outer circles were the same as compared to those in the circles.  This is when they focus on the stem of the plants


Soil samples taken within the crop circles have been studied and the results show that, they contain Radioactive which is not occur in the outside the circles. During watching the videos, the type of crop circles that attract my heart was Triple Julia set because it has beautiful shape and it consists of 35 circles.




1. Wikipedia Contributors. Plagiarisms [Internet]. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopaedia, 2006 May 26 00:36 Available from:

Linette Netshiheni
CSIR Pretoria
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Crop circles are the strange patterns that occur in plants such as wheat, corns, grass, oats and barley. These crop circles are very beautiful. They do not occur every where and at any time, but there are specific countries such as USA, Israel, Russia and UK. Some scientists believe that these circles are man made and while others believe that crops circles do occur naturally. They further say that most of these crop circles occur between 11 pm and 4 am. There are different types of crop circles.

Crop circles are found only in the Northern Hemisphere which is surprising. Some of the countries in which crop circles are found include USA, Israel, Russia and UK. In the Southern Hemisphere we do not hear any reports about the availability of the crop circles. Lack of information about the crop circles in the Southern Hemisphere can be attributed to misunderstanding of what the crop circles are.

Each crop circles have its unique shape. Some are triangle, squares, circles, rings and hexagons etc and it is believed that each circle shape has its meaning. The triangular crop circles are found in USA. The evidence or the samples that are taken inside the circle and outside the circle were not the some. The colours of the crops that are found inside the circles are brown in colour while the crops that are outside the circle are green in colour. The information of the different colours inside and outside of the crop circles has been found by studying the soil samples in the laboratory.

There is still no valid information which confirms how the crop circles are made. Some scientists believe that the energy which is present in the formation of the crop circles is affected by the equipments which are used to take photos and other instruments. On the other side people who do visit the crop circles have also reported a wide range of psychological, physiological and emotional effects. While agriculturalists believe that the pesticides are the once responsible in the negative effects in the crop circles.

From the Video viewed, crops found inside the crop circles were found flattened as opposed to the crops found outside the crop circles which were standing firm. The bending of the crops which were inside the crop circles is attributed to the natural causes. In my opinion crop circles are not hoax but real phenomenon.

In conclusion, there are different types of crop circles which are also found in different parts of the world such as USA, Russia, England and Israel. The crop circles also differ in their shapes such circular, ring, triangular, squares and hexagons. The controversy surrounding whether the crop circles are man made or occur naturally remain sketchy. This is because the disagreement among the scientists is still continuing even today.

1. Anon. Crop Circle Theories [Internet]. Crystalinks. [cited 2006 May 5] Available from: theories.

2. Herby, T. 2000. Crop circles. [Internet]. 2000 January 01. [cited 26 May 2006]. Available from:

3. Wikipedia contributors. Crop circles [Internet]. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopaedia; 2006 May 26, 00: 36 UTC [cited 2006 May 26]. Available from:

4. Wikipedia contributors. Geometry [Internet]. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopaedia;
2006 May 23, 15: 46 UTC [cited 2006 May 26]. Available from:

Lizzy Maluleke
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Crop circle are geometric design that occur in the field of crops or plant but it was mostly found occurring in the plant or crop that have herbaceous stem. They form different shape but most of it develop from circle and stretch to other formation. It was suggested by most of the ancient scientist that the crop circle are natural design. It was suggested that God or evil, use the design to spread some information to the people. But other believe that aliens or natural cause try to communicate with us in the form of crop circle.1

Most of the crop circle happens in the ancient country in north hemisphere, and they occur in the farmland not in the natural forest. They mostly happen during the crop season, so this made other people not to believe that it happen natural, why not happen in the forest or not in the herbaceous plant. These are the questions that are raised by people who do not believe the crop circle as hoax.2

It happen mostly in small herbaceous plant or crop, they lay flattened on the ground and the stem of the crop just bent down not broken, they grow flat following the circle. Or the shape of the crop design. They can be 40ft in diameter with 5 ft diameter of standing plant in the centre.

Shapes of the crop circle are not the same they are known as geometrical, because they produce different shape. These shapes tend to have effect on the crops, the leaf of the crop result in changing colours that shows that they are burnt by micro wave radiation or they are not receiving sunlight properly .the leaf tend to be yellow like they are drying up.

Other scientist do some test to prove if the crop circle is man made or what, laboratory test confirm that the leaves are burnt by micro wave that made them shriveled. The plants that are in control do not show any effect. So this ripple indicates that during formation of circle there was a transient energy involving.

But one can suggest that all this is part of hoax, the crop circle are design by human. Scientist such as David Bower and his friend Dave Chorley confirm that they used to design the crop circle; using plank and string with razor to cut a small puncture that will allow the crop to bend easily.1

The origin of this crop circle can make one not to believe that it is a natural thing, because it only happens in the ancient county why not in the other parts of the continent like Africa. Why only happen in the herbaceous plant only. And it mostly designs unique shape that can mostly design by man.

In conclusion I can suggest that the crop circles are man-made features, they designs it spread information that can be used for psychological purpose. For those who believe on the diagrams. The crop circles are mainly found in north hemisphere, in Egypt. People there believe that the crop circle drawings are useful to relax ones mind .they also believe that it bring ones close to the nature or planet earth. It shows love and caring, but this for me depend on the belief that on have, as scientist we take what we analyse and find it suitable for our consciousness 3


1. Lundberg J. Case history of circle makers, [internet] [cited 2006 May 26]Available from

2. Crop circle 1999 [Internet] [cited 2006 May 26] Available from

3. Crop circle research [Internet] [cited 2006 May 26] Available from:

Mr Elelwani Muanalo
CSIR Pretoria
NISL- Ecological Informatics Student
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Pretoria, 0001
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Although no clear definition of crop circle is currently known, it is believed that they are supernatural things which are very difficult to explain their real causes. Different shape forms of these crop circles are the most interesting thing about these phenomenons. Some have round shape, rectangular shape and star shape.

However the scientists are trying to find out the real cause of this phenomenon. On the other hand, there are hoax believers who believe that these circles are human made. Crop circles have been reported in different countries around the world and this phenomenon appeared in mediums such as barley, wheat and rice paddies.

For example, a crop formation at Chehalis, Washington, USA sampled by Ilyes, the shape of this crop circle was an equilateral triangle. The results of this analysis indicated that electromagnetic energy is an influencing factor in crop formation. The result shows that plants stems were altered by energy mechanism.

Interestingly, I have a lot of questions regarding crop circles formation. First is the issue of time in which they occurred. It is said that they occurs between 11pm and 4am. Second is the fact that they are only found in developed countries and non in developing countries. Surprisingly they are found in the northern hemisphere and why non in the southern hemisphere. The third is the different shape forms they have. I therefore believe that these are man made phenomenon, there are people who are behind this crop circles. The time in which they occurred is an indication that these people work in dark so that they cannot be seen. The fact that these crop circles are found in developed countries is still questionable. I believe this as another hoax as far as many hoaxes are still not yet recovered.

Looking at their different shapes, I believe that there are circle makers who specialise in designing these crop circles.

“Various scientific and pseudo-scientific explanations were put forward to explain the phenomenon, which soon spread around the world. In 1991, more than a decade after the phenomena began, two men, Doug Bower and Dave Chorley, revealed that they had been making crop circles in England since 1978 using planks, rope, hats and wire as their only tools. Many other people around the world are also openly making crop circles, notably Although the commonly accepted view today is that crop circles are a man-made phenomenon, paranormal explanations, often including UFOs, are still popular” (2).

I therefore conclude that crop circles are human made but not natural phenomenon as it is said by others.

1. pineland and Am-tech Labs. Delineation of Electromagnetic Energy Influencing Crop Formations [Internet]. 1994 September 28 [Cited 2006 May 26]. Available from:

2. Wikipedia contributors. Crop circle [Internet]. Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia; 2006 May 26, 00:36 UTC [cited 2006 May 26]. Available from:

Mr Lufuno Mukwevho
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Crop circles are the most interesting attracting patterns found in some parts of the world, as far as we know they are only found in the Northern Hemisphere. They are not only in the forms of circles but they are also in the form of geometric patterns. It seems as it is not easy to explain the crop circles [1].



Most of the crop circles have been found in England, the Netherlands, the United States, and Australia. These mysteries of phenomenon can be found in fields, in the top of the tree, in snow and ice, and they are also found in corn fields, wheat, oat, rape and barley. The formation of the crop circles does not occur at anytime. The crop circles are created late at night between 23h00 and 04h00 [1].


The size of the crop circles found in Australia in 2004 is about “four degrees east of magnetic north, an 8 metre circle to the south of a 3.8-4 metre circle” [3].


The crop circles appeared flattened, burnt with some form of heat and light source, there were also changes in nodes of the stems and the colour of seeds were also different from the original colour [1].


The shapes of the crop circles are likening to creation, sacred geometry, etc, [1]. There are different believes concerning the crop circles, some believes that they are naturals; some believes that they are the results of the devils while other believe that they are hoax, some of the people believed that crop circles were formed by the wind and some believe that they are created by the UFOs, others say they are created by a “brief, intense bursts of microwave radiation from the outer space” [4].



The sampling methods were used to identify the type of crop in a particular location. The barley type of crop was discovered in 1996 August 15 after occurring in 01 – 02 August 1996 in Logan, Utah by Todd Ryan and Lisa Layton. They sampled plants and soil from the field of the circle [2].


In conclusion, the crop circles are not man made, they occurred naturally. If really they were hoax, why are they not found in China and South Africa? I believe they were naturally created. Hoax believers should ask themselves why this crop circles are not found everywhere. Who can spend six hours creating the crop circle? They might spend more than six hours. I totally agree that the crop circles are not man made.


[1]. Crop Circles in Australia








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